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“后装修”时代崛起 家居企业顺势发展是王道

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 开发大会将至 曝第一批苹果HomeKit智能家居产品 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

“两会”释放宽松信号 北京楼市成交环比上涨一成

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

1.Asana
The 12 US schools that appear in this ranking are the most gender balanced on average, with cohorts that are 48 per cent female.
10. 注意自己的心态。
It was billed as the year in which female film-makers and women's issues would be in the spotlight. The festival opened with a film by a female director for the first time in 28 years, Isabella Rossellini chaired the Un Certain Regard jury and Salma Hayek convened a high-profile panel to discuss the role of women in cinema. There was plenty to talk about – but had anything really changed? The numbers seemed to speak for themselves: of the 19 films in competition, only two were directed by women. And then came 'Heelgate' – of which, more later… Faced with suggestions that the festival is sexist, artistic director Thierry Frémaux was having none of it. Cannes was being held to an unfairly high standard, he claimed, one not applied to other festivals like Venice or Berlin. His suggestion? Instead, people should “attack the Oscars”.
Cheng further says, "once you find a list that fits your needs, just tap on the list to see suggested locations. Then swipe right or left to see more options and tap 'read more' or the arrow at the bottom of the screen to select a venue and get more details.".
自信和出色的“电梯演说”可以提高推销的水平。任何一家公司最早的市场营销经验都来自它的创始人。因此,花时间学习如何分享你的愿景,但不要给人留下“你只是想卖东西”的印象。不要害怕寻求销售机会,但你应该牢牢记住:永远以客户为中心。
['letis]

'Increased production in the U.S. meant that spot prices weren't reacting quite as much as in previous geopolitical incidents,' Mr. Hansen said. There is so much supply that threats to it have less impact than previously, and 2014 will be 'the first year in a while when supply growth is going to outpace demand growth,' Mr. Hansen said.
如果观众还不知道这部影片是以20世纪80年代初为背景,那看一眼安娜的直刘海就知道了。她留着齐肩长发,刘海以外的部分在脸庞四周形成微微弯曲的弧度。这个造型很简单,但对这个女人来说显得很有力量,她丈夫艾贝尔(奥斯卡·伊萨克[Oscar Isaac]饰)经营取暖油生意,不过她的过去更为复杂。
A fascinating study from researchers at the University of North Florida reveals that running barefoot may actually improve your memory more than running with shoes. While most memory studies seem to take place in a laboratory or room where everyone sits at a table, this experiment definitely introduced an interesting idea to the search for a better memory. The experiment focused on something called "working memory," which is the human ability to process information and recall details throughout life. The scientists published the results of their study in "Perceptual and Motor Skills," and found that running barefoot resulted in a not-insignificant memory boost when compared with memory performance after running with shoes. The researchers found that tossing your shoes off and running for about 16 minutes at a comfortable pace could result in a 16% improvement in working memory performance.
说到底,我预期这些新的领导人将开始从更广泛的候选人中选拔人员,并把不同背景的人任命为自己的直接下属,从而驳斥那些根据当前的失衡来外推还需数十年才能实现领导层男女平衡的悲观者。
单词elite 联想记忆:

Footnotes

  • 十月陶瓷价格指数小幅回暖 市场行情趋稳
  • 去年一系列洪灾袭击了世界各国,英国也包括在内。去年12月英国经历了1910年开始记录以来雨水最多的月份。

在3月2号,北韩政府网站我们民族之间警告北韩将对任何气球投放展开"炮弹和导弹的攻击,而不只是几下枪击"。
‘Law & Order: SVU’ This NBC ripped-from-the-soap-opera perils of Olivia (Mariska Hargitay) — psychopath rapist-stalker, tortured love affair, new baby — that took up so much air last season finally died down, and this season, the show’s 16th, the detectives got back to sex crimes à clef, including a Ray Rice-inspired episode about a star sportscaster who was seen on a surveillance camera punching the lights out of his wife.
当然,影片中最惊人的一幕是外星人遇到一个涉世不深,外表因为多发性神经纤维瘤而丑陋的年轻男子,由亚当·皮尔森扮演。格雷泽带来的这一幕是全然无畏而且毫无感情波动的,或许这是从大卫·林奇的《象人》这部影片的主题变化而来。外星人并不会在本质上区分这位年轻男子的长相,但是她与这位男子相遇——两个外星人的遭遇?——触发了危机,使得她成为了猎物,而不是猎人。
实际上,有能力和平回应是它们的长处之一。
Though the Dutch financial markets then had none of today’s technology, they employed many of the same practices that traders use today. Investors bought securities, sometimes borrowing money with loans secured by the shares they were buying. In today's language, they bought shares on margin. Lenders protected themselves by demanding a “haircut” – collateral in cash or securities that exceeded the loan amount by a specified percentage. If the value of the securities dropped below that specified percentage, the lender would demand that the investor put up additional money to stay in line with the haircut. If the investor couldn’t come up with the added margin, the lender was entitled to liquidate the securities and recoup the loan amount.
7. Cannes' 'year of women' didn't go so well

省房协报告显示,广东房企前5月买地“缩水” 调控不放松 楼市调整将持续

References

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