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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

When faced with competition, they may focus less on winning or losing than their Type A counterparts, and more on enjoying the game regardless of winning or losing.

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Inside Obama's Chicago campaign headquarters, staffers erupted into cheers and high fives as state after state was called for the president。
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London Business School (LBS) performed strongly across all five rankings. All of its programmes are in the European top 10, including its full-time MBAs, ranked second, and its joint EMBA programme (taught with Columbia Business School in the US) and customised executive education courses, both in fourth place.
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事实上,无论是詹妮弗加纳还是詹纽瑞琼斯、肯达尔詹娜,大家都拍下了她们所挑选出的最能唬人的南瓜,兴奋地送走十月,迎接十一月万圣节的到来。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

吉林省处理问题疫苗案责任人 食药监局局长被免职

两名美国人因研究医生与医院、学生与学校和人体器官与被移植者之间的有效匹配,昨天被授予诺贝尔经济学奖。
如果我们问你“你想要多少月薪?”你应该说随便,或是根据工作责任而定。除非我们逼你,别自己说出一个具体的数。因为那只会让我们在商量上面占上风。
Although no North American cities feature in the top 20, the EIU said the cost of living in New York had risen relative to other places in the United States. It shares 27th position as the most expensive US city with Los Angeles.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Wuxi, in coastal Jiangsu province, retained the top spot for a second month with growth of 4.9 per cent,
Imports grew 6.7 per cent year-on-year to $152.2bn after falling 1.4 per cent the previous month, according to China’s General Administration of Customs, defying a median forecast predicting contraction would worsen to 1.9 per cent.
影片直接来自真实的Bling Ring帮,2008年,他们10个月的赃物飚升了300万美元。电影列出的所有名人都是这个团伙真实的受害者。团伙成员声称,是社会对这些名人私生活的痴迷鼓励了他们。无论动机如何,《炫富帮》都很好地提醒了人们,要时不时与媒体拉开距离。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 创业者都是行动者和颠覆者。他们不能去分析每一个细节,否则他们将寸步难行。初创公司没有拖延的资本。创业是一个全天候、无休假的职业,创业者必须具备持久不变的前进动力。迈出每一步的时候进行简单的评估,然后继续前进。相信自己的直觉。
  • 国家发改委:并未考虑禁止企业境外发债
  • 8月首播的《秦时丽人明月心》全剧共48集,围绕着秦朝(公元前221-206年)时的争斗和爱情故事展开,剧情均为虚构。
  • 自如表示稳租金将成常态 九城续约房源租金平均涨幅不超过5%
  • 特价家具定制产品不退换 商场先行赔付是噱头
  • Since 2005, the business book of the year award has gone to the book that provides “the most compelling and enjoyable insight into modern business issues”. The 2014 winner was Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty.
    Steven Spielberg directs Meryl Streep and Tom Hanks in The Post, a thrilling drama about the unlikely partnership between The Washington Post's Katharine Graham (Streep), the first female publisher of a major American newspaper, and editor Ben Bradlee (Hanks), as they race to catch up with The New York Times to expose a massive cover-up of government secrets that spanned three decades and four U.S. Presidents. The two must overcome their differences as they risk their careers - and their very freedom - to help bring long-buried truths to light.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 房地产面临去库存持久战 供过于求 分化明显, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

蜗居地下室、谈房心塞 都市漂族何处安家?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

多数家居建材上市企业年报预喜 消费者需求转变

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 第三,麦克德莫特可以作为一道保险,以防如果今年夏天安德烈-罗伯森选择自由离开时雷霆无人可用。
    If a child on the street who has nothing, is willing to share, why are we who have everyting still so greedy? 如果一个孩子在自己一无所有的时候都能愿意分享,为什么拥有一切的大人却如此贪婪?
  • 这是智慧的时代,也是愚蠢的时代……
    为什么会有这样的不同?原因并不是因为双方获得的信息不同。正如库迪斯和沃斯所指,荷兰金融圈里的每个人都知道和了解所发生事件的严重程度。也不是因为Seppenwolde的贷款机构不得不重建自身财务。违约几周后,贷款机构就知道他们没有损失一毛钱。
    谷歌英国的搜索结果分为热门趋势搜索榜和搜索次数排行榜。
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Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 建材业成资本市场宠儿 80多家企业在沪深港上市
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 全国居民购房杠杆率连降八个季度后首次回升

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

单词debut 联想记忆:
而中国喜剧片《羞羞的铁拳》目前已在全球获得3.26亿美元的巨额收益。
单词amnesty 联想记忆:
In addition to the overall ranking, US News also offers region-, country- and subject-specific rankings, to allow for more tailored searching.
据新华社报道,全国青少年校园足球办公室近日表示,2016年中国已经拥有13381所“足球专业学校”,而69个区县正在学校里试点足球项目。
鹈鹕一直在费力的吸引并留下自由球员,他们必须在这个夏天留下朱-霍勒迪,考辛斯的家乡在附近的阿拉巴马,而且他和安东尼-戴维斯是密友,同时,多个令人沮丧和伤病困扰的赛季让鹈鹕一直在失败的循环中摇摆。
怎么玩吉他

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 你一直感到压力很大
  • 房地产十余年黄金时代终结 房企身处转型风口
  • Tesla:In an effort to blunt criticism about slow refueling times for battery-powered cars, Tesla TSLA -1.54% starts to roll out of a network of battery-swap stations. CEO Elon Musk must hope he can outdo Shai Agassi’s Better Place, which tried to build a whole company around battery-swaps before going bankrupt in 2013.
    在第二轮(重新)谈判不久前结束后,我们真正进入了贸易谈判的技术官僚阶段。
  • 济南:房产中介收费属市场行为 物价局不进行指导
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • When she consults managers, Kay says many of them suspect something is fishy when their employees stop talking to them as often, whether it's to give an update, ask for an opinion or just say hello. As Kay puts it: "You're not doing the things you normally would have to keep the relationship going."
    a不,非,mnes记忆-不记仇-赦免
  • IDC认为,中国人可支配收入的增加导致了消费的增加,从而推动了国内手机市场的快速增长。
    在主持过去年的奥斯卡颁奖典礼、之前的格莱美奖及艾美奖之后,她无疑是这个角色的最佳选择。
  • China has become the country with the most film screens in the world.
    他们开始对无保障合同、不稳定的工作时间安排、微薄的工资以及依托优步(Uber)等在线零工经济平台的新形态工作感到忧心忡忡。总部位于巴黎的有影响力的富国俱乐部——经济合作与发展组织(OECD)将于2018年发布《就业战略》,其中可能会更加强调工作的质量和包容性。
  • 亚太地区票房增长了13%,是推动国际票房增长的主力,而中国贡献了整个亚太地区近半票房。
    In the three years after the death of Steve Jobs, Mr Cook, 54, has held his nerve through attacks from activist investors and a loss of faith among some that Apple could succeed without its late founder. This year has seen Apple’s chief step out of the shadows of his predecessor and imprint the company with his own set of values and priorities: bringing in fresh blood, changing how it manages its cash pile, opening Apple up to greater collaboration and focusing more on social issues.
    Age: 46
  • 体操、蹦床、竞技体操、艺术体操、
    格里芬高中时代的样子与现今相差无几,原因是他离开高中才四年。我们能想象得出,暴力美学的格里芬在NBA里再锻炼上一两年年,他会变得更“怪兽”。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 90后购房需知这些 这五步不能迷糊 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

连天红事件何时休?

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

湖南衡南县:贫困户喜搬新房

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

统计局:一季度全国人均可支配收入8493元 同比增长8.7%

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

城乡融合发展释放红利(锐财经)

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Song “Embrace Happiness”(Kelly Chen)
  • 各大资产管理公司的专家们表示,评估亚洲ETF潜力的难题在于日本市场在地区所占比重过大,以及日本央行(Bank of Japan)扮演的角色过大。日本央行每年购买6万亿日元(合540亿美元)的ETF,这扭曲了市场。
  • 多喜爱公开喊冤拒绝承认产品有问题

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 今年临近尾声之际,欧洲央行在12月3日投票削减其存款利率至负0.3%,并扩大资产购买,使量化宽松计划的规模达到1.46万亿欧元。此举出炉十几天后,美联储(Federal Reserve)自2006年以来首次提高利率,突显大西洋两岸正在推行的货币政策截然不同。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • It was all work, work, work for the BBC Culture team and parties, alas, were few and far between. But the rest of Cannes was painting the town red. In 2013 we tried to calculate the amount of champagne consumed at the festival by contacting Piper Heidsieck, “the official drink” of the festival, but they declined to comment – though judging by the merry faces and staggering gaits of some on the Croisette, it's safe to assume a colossal quantity. At the party for Matteo Garrone's Tale of Tales on the first weekend, the champers flowed freely and the revellers stayed on until the early hours. When the BBC's Rebecca Laurence spoke to one of its stars the following morning and asked how many hours sleep he'd had before their interview, he simply narrowed his bleary eyes and held up two fingers.
    中国国家统计局发布的10月份制造业采购经理指数(PMI)降至51.6,比路透(Reuters)调查的经济学家给出的预测中值52要低,离荣枯分界线50更近。
    你的消费者信任你吗?他们知道你都拿他们的个人信息干嘛去了吗?你这么做他们高兴吗?这不仅仅是美国国家安全局、微软和谷歌的问题。谷歌眼镜也不会是唯一一个引发争论的产品。如果你和你的顾客之间有足够的信任,这会降低你做生意的成本;反之,那些不重视与合伙人、供应商和消费者建立信任关系的企业则会为之所累。
  • 这部20世纪70年代黑色幽默犯罪电影的主角,是诈骗高手欧文·罗森菲尔德和他的情妇西德尼·普鲁塞尔,他们被一名联邦调查局(FBI)干员抓获,然后被迫欺骗腐败的政治家。二人继续与干员、政治家目标以及自己的家人周旋,最终达成豁免协议,得以不受任何刑事指控就脱离苦海。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Late last year, the World Health Organization declared that Zika virus was no longer a global emergency. But the disease’s effects on babies who may live for decades are only beginning to be understood. In northeastern Brazil, where links between the virus and birth defects like microcephaly were first detected, families struggle to give the best lives possible to stricken babies. Researchers hope to find clues about the virus’s effects on the fetus by studying pairs of twins in Brazil in which one was born with birth defects and the other was not.
  • 用好“新房保险”这把伞
  • circulate

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 福建陶瓷畅销海外 前11月出口创汇134.8亿元
  • Household substance abuse
  • 地产大热定制门窗刚需增大,企业要如何走才正确?
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

卫浴洁具的分类大全

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 石材行业遭打压,六大措施成“通行证”
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 房地产规划变更监管将加强
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

《维多利亚与阿卜杜勒》

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

“有个人请妻子跟自己老板打电话说他不会再来上班了。”
10月份,日本生产增长速度突然提升,让决策者对日本经济的实力有了更多希望,或许也可以理解为释放了更多喜忧参半的信号。
“让人们感到不幸福的原因有很多——从贫穷,失业,家庭破碎到身体伤害” 报告声称,“但在一些特定的社会中,慢性的精神性疾病却是幸福的‘头号杀手’。如果我们想要一个更加幸福的世界,我们需要花更多努力来关心人们的心理健康。”
紧随其后的是内蒙古自治区地方地震局的一个岗位,周二有768名报考者选择了该岗位。
The announcement comes from the British Fashion Council (BFC), who surveyed designers ahead of the shows and found none of the 80 designers in the September line-up would be using fur.
赫洛维兹对爱尔兰广播公司RTE表示,他的新邦德形象强烈忠于50年代的邦德。
你的消费者信任你吗?他们知道你都拿他们的个人信息干嘛去了吗?你这么做他们高兴吗?这不仅仅是美国国家安全局、微软和谷歌的问题。谷歌眼镜也不会是唯一一个引发争论的产品。如果你和你的顾客之间有足够的信任,这会降低你做生意的成本;反之,那些不重视与合伙人、供应商和消费者建立信任关系的企业则会为之所累。
1.水上类比赛项目
Whenever I talk to people about the future, I'm struck by their belief that it is knowable. The impression I get is that most people imagine the future like a book ending: already written and readable if you can just steal a quick look at the last few pages. What they find difficult is accepting that the pages aren't written yet. The future hasn't happened, hasn't even been planned--and cannot be known because it doesn't exist.
希萨柯既是一位不可或缺的政治导演,也是当代电影中的伟大诗人之一。他为北部马里圣战者管辖之下的生活所绘的图像既残酷又惊人,但也温柔、慷慨儿惊人的有趣。希萨柯并没有把暴力极端分子人性化,而是展示出,他们已经成了这种人,也反映出我们身上普遍的、悲剧的天性。但他的影片还坚持认为,反对狂热主义,唯一有效而且道德的方式就是人道主义。他以反讽而正直的方式言说了这一观点,或许最重要的是,以艺术的方式言说了这一观点。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

儿童家具抽检结果引人担忧 电商平台合格率最低

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 巴蒂表示,中国的大学现如今已经花费百万元巨资聘请国际知名学者,同时还配备了各项最先进的设备。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • If any movie can bridge the deep racial, generational and class divides in American life — at least for a couple of hours — it would have to be this revival of the ancient “Rocky” franchise. Sylvester Stallone, shuffling into the wise old trainer role, gives perhaps the loosest, warmest performance of his career. Michael B. Jordan, as Adonis Johnson, Rocky’s protégé (and the illegitimate son of his onetime rival and long-lost friend, Apollo Creed), continues his emergence as one of the vital movie stars of our moment. As for Mr. Coogler, with his second feature as a director he proves himself to be a true contender. (Read the review)
  • 广州闲置宅基地可拆旧建新 建设民宿发展乡村旅游
  • 这两个人站在后台两端,熟记奖项得主名字,以省去写下名单的麻烦。从以往看,他们都做了细致的检查,以确保准确地填装了信封。据信,按要求,瑞兹和卡利南要随着颁奖典礼的进行毁掉两张相同的卡片。所以,到颁最佳影片奖时,应该只剩下两只最佳影片奖信封。
  • 2017年共有产权房供地超额完成 今年供地计划考虑职住平衡
  • Texas was one of the first states to emerge from the recession and it continues to attract companies on the basis of its low tax burden, predictable regulatory environment and skilled labor force. Texas employment is expected to expand 3% annually through 2017, according to Moody’s. (Arizona’s forecasted rate is a microscopic 0.04% better). Texas has attracted a lot of attention from California companies and Governor Rick Perry has not been shy about contrasting the business climates of the two states. California firms EBay and Electronic Arts have both chosen Texas for large expansions in recent years. Austin has been a hotbed of activity this year with Accenture

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 北京市委书记蔡奇在通州区调研:高质量推动城市副中心规划建设
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • v. 扩充,延伸,伸展,扩展
  • 但是,海外机构投资者表示,随着中国经济增长放慢,香港房地产市场已经过热,正在进入调整阶段。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

月度成交面积环比下滑 30城楼市现降温

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